Review: Nanoparticle Characterization: What to Measure?

In our new review article, we aim at providing a set of guidelines (see image below) to investigate and characterize the key parameters defining a nanoparticle sample, namely size, shape, surface charge, and porosity. We define these physicochemical terms and their implication in affecting nanoparticle properties. We then provide a critical overview of established and specialized techniques currently used for evaluation of nanoparticles, and discuss their practical advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we propose some reasonable recommendations of how the physicochemical parameters of nanoparticles should be investigated, and how to characterize these key properties in different environments according to the intended nanoparticle use. Our main intention with this review is to improve comparability of nanoparticle properties and performance to ensure the successful transfer of scientific knowledge to industrial real-world applications.