Controlling morphology of materials

In a recent review contribution of Jongkook Hwang, Aleksander Ejsmont, Ralph Freund, Joanna Gościańska, Bernhard Schmidt and us we discuss the challenge to control the morphology of metal oxides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and porous carbon materials. We hope to bring to the attention of material community the importance of using smart ideas to shape and structure materials for specific applications (Figure). For this purpose, we first discuss and define the expressions morphology and shape. Next, we give a comprehensive overview of synthetic strategies for morphology control of metal oxides nanostructures. In the following two chapters we provide an overview of using metal oxide as architecture directing agents for MOFs and porous carbon materials, with specific morphologies. Last but not least, we describe the link of MOFs and porous carbon materials specific shape and size with regard to their application. We predict that major research advances in morphology control of metal-organic frameworks and porous carbon will facilitate the use of those materials in addressing major needs of the society, especially the grand challenges of as batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, adsorption, catalysis, sensing, and nano-medicine.

Multifaceted morphology of different metal oxides (MO, left) transferred to metal-organic frameworks (MOF) of different compositions (middle left) and further to metal-organic framework-derived carbon (MDC, middle right) allowing systematically controlled synthesis of complex materials for various industrial applications (right).

J. Hwang, A. Ejsmont, R. Freund, J. Goscianska, B. V. K. J. Schmidt, S. Wuttke, Controlling morphology of metal-organic frameworks and porous carbon materials: metal oxides as primary architecture-directing agents, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2020, 49, 3348-3422. (DOI: 10.1039/C9CS00871C)